SSD: Solid-state drives are computer data storage devices that use integrated circuit assemblies as memory to permanently store data. Unlike hard disk drives, there are no moving parts in solid-state drives.
Form Factor: A device’s form factor refers to its size and physical configuration. SSDs come in various form factors.
Wear Leveling: This is the process that boosts the endurance of SSDs by ensuring that all blocks are used evenly. A uniform distribution of writes across all LBAs helps prevent wearing down some blocks while others remain uncorrupted.
Garbage Collection: The process of freeing space in the SSD that is no longer referenced by the File System. Garbage Collection must take place periodically to ensure the data stored on the drive remains valid and cannot be corrupted. Garbage collection can occur automatically or manually.
TRIM Command: This allows operating systems like Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 to send signals to SSDs on a regular basis telling them which data blocks are no longer in use, allowing the driver to manage these sectors. This helps the drive maintain high performance across all LBAs and improve its endurance over time.
NAND Flash Memory: NAND flash memory is a type of non-volatile computer storage. Their advantage is in how fast they can access memory and in their ability to retain data even when power has been disconnected.
SLC (Single-Level Cell): This type of NAND flash memory stores one bit of information per cell, which allows it to write and read faster than MLC (Multi-Level Cell).
MLC (Multi-Level Cell): MLC flash memory stores two bits of information per cell, resulting in slower write speeds, but double the storage density when compared to SLC.
TLC (Triple-Level Cell): TLC flash memory is able to store three bits of information per cell, making it even denser than MLC flash, but slower when writing data.
ECC (Error-Correcting Code): Error-correcting code is a system that uses parity bits for detecting and correcting errors in memory. ECC is used to protect the integrity of the data stored on SSDs. It does this by allowing a block to be read, calculating an ECC from it, and then writing both the block data and calculated ECC to another location. If the drive reads the block, it will recalculate the ECC and compare it against what was originally written. If they do not match, due to a hard error occurring in that sector, that sector is marked as bad by the SSD controller.
SSD Endurance: SSD endurance is the amount of data, in terabytes (TB), that an SSD can write to it over its life. This value is calculated and based on JEDEC standards for client PC usage models and generally includes 5% or less use of client PC client workloads such as writing/deleting files, installing applications, copying music and photos, and basic web browsing.
SSD Reliability: SSD reliability refers to the ability of solid-state drives to function overtime under typical operating conditions. One important factor is their ability to read and write data without errors or loss of data integrity which is what most consumers consider a malfunctioning drive.
SSD Write Limit: The maximum number of times an SSD can be written over its life under warranty conditions. This limit takes into consideration the endurance and type of flash memory used in the SSD controller and could be lower than the total amount of data that can be written to an SSD over its life.
SSD Read Limit: The maximum number of times an SSD can read data from it over the warranty period. This limit takes into consideration endurance and the type of flash memory employed in the controller and could be lower than the total amount of data that can be read from an SSD over its life.
BIOS : (Basic Input Output System) also known as the system BIOS, ROM BIOS, or PC BIOS is a type of firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs. The BIOS interacts with hardware components in your computer to “talk” to all the other components in your system.
Buffer: A buffer is an electronic circuitry that temporarily stores data, allowing it to be safely sent between devices or processed by computer programs. The amount of time it takes for an SSD buffer to fill up with data is called the ‘latency’.
mSATA: mSATA (mini-Serial ATA) is a form factor and interface specification for connecting flash memory devices such as solid-state drives to mainboards. It uses the SATA connector and signals, but it relies on lower signalling rates than those used in 2.5″ SATA hard disk drives, resulting in a smaller design that can be adapted for compact devices such as tablets or laptops.
m.2: m.2 is a specification for internally mounted computer expansion cards and associated connectors. It replaces the mSATA standard, which uses the PCI Express Mini Card physical card layout and connectors.
NGFF: NGFF (Next Generation Form Factor) also known as M.2 is a specification for internally mounted computer expansion cards and associated connectors invented by Phoenix Contact and defined by the PCI-SIG. It replaces the mSATA standard, which uses the PCI Express Mini Card physical card layout and connectors.
PCIe: PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard for attaching hardware devices to a computer. The different PCI Express versions support different data rates.
NTFS: NTFS is a proprietary file system developed by Microsoft.
FAT32: FAT32 is a common file system format, which limits the number of files on each disk to 4,294,967,295 (232) due to using 32-bit numbers for storing each filename.
S.M.A.R.T: S.M.A.R.T (Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology) is a monitoring system for SSD drives to detect and report on various indicators of drive reliability such as temperature, number of reading/write errors and spin up time as well as predict possible device failure.
KB, MB, GB, TB: KB (kilobyte), MB (megabyte), GB (gigabyte), TB (terabyte) are units of computer data storage capacity.